My expertise is in the anatomy and physiology of the auditory system. Most of my research has focused on neural circuitry involved in auditory processing. I am generally interested in how the auditory system develops and processes sound and how aging and noise trauma lead to hearing dysfunction. I use electrophysiology and immunohistochemical techniques to study how neurons connect and communicate with each other during hearing perception across the lifetime of an organism. My work has been published in a variety of areas including development of neuronal cell physiology, inhibitory input integration, pharmacology of synaptic transmission, stress signaling in aging and auditory damage, and novel experimental methods.